American higher education has been under extreme pressures for nearly a decade from a perfect storm of financial, political, demographic, and technological forces. The seemingly never-ending list of worries year after year is beginning to crack the confidence of college leaders.
Selingo, J. (2015). The View From the Top: What Presidents Think About Financial Sustainability, Student Outcomes, and the Future of Higher Education. The Chronicle of Higher Education, Inc.
You aren’t imaging it, it is real. You and your people are facing high expectations and new demands. Specifically, you are being asked to save money and cut costs while also increasing completion rates, decreasing attainment gaps and improving the overall quality of education. Or as you put it when we surveyed you at the beginning of the year, “help me lead my people while managing tightening resources and increasing demands!”
There is no silver bullet but during the month of July we will share helpful ideas and resources on managing workloads, prioritization, supporting your people, designing work, eliminating inefficiency, and exploring new technology. We also want to provide a platform for you to share information and tips that you are using as you tackle the challenge of managing tightening resources and increasing demands.
The challenge is real but as Ray Kroc said in his autobiography, “Persevere. Nothing in the world can replace persistence.”
“As a leader, you only get one chance–when someone gives you feedback–to get it right. If you push back or get defensive, chances are good you will never get feedback from that person again.” – Susan Scott, author of Fierce Conversations and Fierce Leadership
As Todd mentioned last week, I’ve been conducting performance reviews with my staff the last couple of weeks of June. Typically, I ask my staff several questions to get the conversation going, like “What are you most proud of?” What gave you the most satisfaction during the year? What got in the way of doing your best work?” I also ask my staff for feedback about how I can support them and help them by removing obstacles that are keeping them from doing their best work.
This month we’ve been focusing on driving performance…for our teams and ourselves. Over my career, I’ve found that asking for feedback from your team members is critical in making sure that you are supporting their success and driving performance, not just during review time, but throughout the year.
Susan Scott, author of Fierce Conversations, encourages leaders to ask for feedback from their teams, saying that feedback is...”a conversation in which we have the opportunity to see what we may not see.” Wow, think about it. Feedback can give you a window into an issue that you hadn’t understood before. It could shine a spotlight on an obstacle that is keeping you or your team from moving forward. Problem is, it can also be scary to ask for feedback and to receive it, and “to see what we may not see.”
Scott has put together a 6-step process that can help make the feedback process less intimidating for leaders.
- Ask for feedback (examples could include: “What feedback do you have for me that will help me become more effective in how I lead our team meetings?” “What feedback do you have for me that will help me improve how I work with you, your team, this project, etc.?”
- Be prepared to listen and learn (listen to what is being said and how)
- Remain curious (ask for specifics, clarification and examples)
- Demonstrate a willingness to consider (decide what you can learn from the feedback; consider: “have I heard this before?”)
- Say thank you
- Follow up (commit to action for the areas you wish to change and ask for support)
In your experience, what has been the benefit of asking for feedback from your staff? What are the potential pitfalls?
For more inspiration, see Susan Scott’s TEDx talk
Last week I talked about helping people identify their strengths. As leaders, we need to know our own strengths and also those of our team members. The second part of the equation is helping people to use their strengths. This includes a couple of key steps.
- Be a coach. Ask good questions to help people focus on their strengths. Examples include: Tell me about a success you’ve had at work. How did you accomplish it? What positive feedback do you often receive about your work? What parts of your job do you like most, and why?
- Identify their passions. Those are the spots where you can tap into their energy and promote excellent performance. Focus on the emotions. As people are telling their success stories, listen for excitement, enjoyment, and a sense of pride.
- Create an action plan. How, specifically, will someone develop their strengths and use them on the job?
- Provide opportunities. Where can you help people use and develop their strengths? Can they represent you on a committee, join a planning team, be in charge of a project? While you can’t necessarily change entire position descriptions, you can often make adjustments to leverage the best of what people bring to work.
- Hold people accountable. Follow up on the action plan. Recognize accomplishments and identify barriers that may be getting in the way. Ask how you can help.
Think about leaders that have helped you use your strengths at work. What did they do, and how can you do something similar for your team members?
Dee Anne Bonebright
Do those three words cause your heart to race, a smile to creep across your face, or a panicked look at your calendar as you search for time to prepare? Well, either by luck or remarkable planning, I am scheduled to have my annual performance review later today and I have experienced all three in the last few days.
When you cut through all the information and opinions from the hundreds of articles, blogs, consulting firms, books, processes, procedures and policies on performance reviews you end up with two elements; the process and the people or human interaction. The process is usually determined by your institution, but you, the leader, can determine the quality of the human interaction with your team member. And a recent study by the Gallop organization indicates that the human interaction is what actually drives employee performance and the effectiveness of the performance review, not the process and forms!
The study found the following four managerial actions made a significant difference in the effectiveness of any performance review process:
- Clearly communicating performance standards and what good performance looks like
- Focusing on employee strengths rather than weaknesses
- Emphasizing that the purpose of the review is to support and aid their development and success, not just an HR requirement
- Communicating performance expectations throughout the year, not just at the annual review
Other tips that focus on the people or human interaction element include:
- Make it a two-way conversation by starting with an open-ended question
- Over the past year, what accomplishments are you most proud of, and why?
- Describe how your work supported the mission of the college or of your department/office.
- Keep your feedback:
And a final general rule of thumb that I have found helpful is to balance the focus of the review to:
- 10% on the past year
- 30% on the current expectations and needs of the department, team and institution
- 60% on the goals, expectations and development over the next year
As I said earlier, today is my review and I am looking forward to a genuine two-way conversation with my manager, Anita. She demonstrates the importance of the human interaction and I always walk out of her office fully engaged and with a clear picture of the year ahead and how I can succeed!
Let us know what good ideas or tips you have used to improve the quality of the human interaction in your performance reviews.
According to Harvard researcher and author Shawn Achor, most of us have the formula for success backwards. We think if we work hard, we will be successful and that our success will lead to happiness. Think about it. Have you ever thought happiness would follow after getting that next great job or promotion? Maybe it did briefly, but was it really lasting?
Recent discoveries in neuroscience, positive psychology, and management studies actually prove the opposite to be true. Our happiness fuels success. When we are happy, we are more productive and successful. In fact, being happy increases the levels of dopamine in our brains. And dopamine makes our brains 30% more efficient. So what does this have to do with driving performance, both our own and the performance of our teams? Quite a bit actually.
Achor explains in his 2011 Ted Talk, that only 25% of job success is predicted by IQ. The remaining 75% of job success is predicted by three key factors:
- Optimism levels
- Social Support
- Ability to see stress as a challenge, rather than a threat
So knowing that optimism levels (aka happiness) fuels success, what can you do to increase the optimism levels of your team? Achor suggests that everyone needs to start with themselves first, saying that positivity and happiness can be contagious. He outlines several practices that can help you rewire your brain’s ability to see things positively.
- 3 Gratitudes – every day for 21 days, write down 3 new things you are grateful for
- Journaling – every day write down one positive experience you’ve had in the last 24 hours (this helps your brain re-live the experience)
- Exercise – choose something you like to do each day (exercise boosts mood and performance)
- Meditation – spend just 5 minutes a day meditating, praying, or just listening to yourself breathe in and out (this helps your brain to focus)
- Conscious Acts of Kindness – write and send one positive email to a colleague each day (doing something good for someone else increases your own positivity)
This week I’m committing myself to the 3 Gratitudes and a Conscious Act of Kindness each day to increase my happiness and boost my performance. I’ll let you know if my team notices the difference and it begins to spread. I challenge you to join me! Go ahead, choose one or two strategies to increase your happiness and see what happens.
One of the keys to driving high performance is understanding and leveraging the strengths of people on your team. As leaders, this means we need to 1) know what the strengths are, and 2) provide opportunities for people to use them. This post will focus on the first step, identifying strengths.
You may be familiar with Gallup’s StrengthsFinder assessment. This is a useful tool for individuals and teams to identify and support the things that we each do best. Another list of strengths was developed by leaders in the positive psychology profession. It includes:
- Strengths of wisdom and knowledge such as creativity, curiosity, and perspective
- Strengths of courage such as persistence and integrity
- Strengths of humanity such as kindness and social intelligence
- Strengths of justice such as citizenship and leadership
- Strengths of temperance such as forgiveness and humility
- Strengths of transcendence such as gratitude and humor
These are powerful words. With our stereotypical Minnesota modesty, you may find yourself or someone you are coaching is reluctant to claim them. Here are some signs to help people identify their strengths:
- Authenticity: Does it feel like “the real me?”
- Engagement: Am I excited to use this strength, and to learn more about it?
- Rapid learning: Does it come easily to me? Am I frequently learning new ways to display the strength?
- Inevitability: Do I frequently find myself in situations where I need to use this strength? Can I “not help myself?”
- Energy: Does using this strength recharge me rather than lead to exhaustion?
- Intrinsic motivation: Is an opportunity to use the strength its own reward?
Think about your team’s successes over the past year. What did it look like when you saw people using their strengths?
Dee Anne Bonebright
“It won’t happen again,” “I’m sure he has it under control now,” “She does everything else so well,” and “I hate having to talk about this.”
How often have you had this talk with yourself? I know I have and many leaders I work with have shared that they also dread having tough performance conversations. We avoid the issue, we over-analyze, we search for glimmers of improvement, we obsess and over-prepare. And what happens? The performance problem continues or gets worse!
To drive high performance we just need to dive in and have the conversation. While that is easier said then done, the “Two Minute Challenge” (from The Practical Coach distributed by Media Partners) is a straight-forward guide to start the conversation and initiate improvement.
The Two Minute Challenge asks you to follow these five steps, in order, without skipping one:
- State what you have observed – only the actual behavior or issue. Be specific but concise with no extra details, potential motives or personal assumptions.
- Wait for a response – make yourself stop. Do not charge forward with your ideas. This clarifies that they are responsible for taking action, not you.
- State or clarify the expected performance or goal – focus on the outcome desired not explanations or unrelated issues.
- Ask for a specific solution that will meet the expectation – what specifically will they do differently?
- Agree together on the solution – clarify what they will be doing and establish a shared understanding of next steps.
Following these five steps doesn’t make the conversation easy but it provides a structure that can help you take action sooner. Recently a dean at one of our schools shared that he had been planning and planning a performance conversation with a faculty member and not actually having it. After I shared the two minute challenge with him he scheduled the meeting, followed the steps and agreed with the faculty member on a plan of action. It wasn’t the favorite part of his day but it was productive and started the ball rolling!
Most of us will never enjoy having tough performance conversations but the Two Minute Challenge can kick-start the action needed for a productive outcome. Give it a try when you hear yourself hoping the issue will go away.